A host cell infected by a virus will activate the adaptive immune response through _______.

A host cell infected by a virus will activate the adaptive immune response through _______.

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The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system, is a subsystem of the immune system that is composed of specialized, systemic cells…

A T cell is a type of lymphocyte. T cells are one of the important white blood cells of the immune system and play a central role in the adaptive immune…


According to, In cell-mediated immune responses, the second class of adaptive immune response, activated T cells react directly against a foreign antigen that is presented to them on the surface of a host cell. The T cell, for example, might kill a virus-infected host cell that has viral antigens on its surface, thereby eliminating the infected cell before the virus has had a chance to replicate (see Figure …

According to, Via cytotoxic cells When a virus infects a person (host), it invades the cells of its host in order to survive and replicate. Once inside, the cells of the immune system cannot ‘see’ the virus and therefore do not know that the host cell is infected. To overcome this, cells employ a system that allows them to show other cells what is inside them – they use molecules called

According to, cells are carried away from the infected tissue in lymph, along with their antigen cargo, to enter secondary lymphoid tissues, in which they can initiate the adaptive immune response. They arrive in large numbers at the draining lymph nodes, or other nearby lymphoid tissue, attracted by the chemokines ELC, MIP-3β,

According to, The two major divisions of adaptive immunity, antibody and T-cell-mediated, are mainly directed at different targets. Antibodies usually function by binding to free viral particles, and in so doing block infection of the host cell. In contrast, T cells act principally by recognizing and destroying virus-infected cells.

According to, The adaptive immune response. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present antigen bound to the major bistocompatibility complex (MHC) class II or class I molecules to activate naïve CD4 + or CD8 + T cells, respectively, through both recognition of the bound antigen by the T-cell receptor (TCR) and costimulation.

According to, Viral clearance and resolution of infection requires a complex, multi-faceted response initiated by resident respiratory tract cells and innate immune cells and ultimately resolved by adaptive immune cells.

According to, Hiding within immune cells. Some viruses are also able to modulate the immune system through the infection of, destruction of and modulation of immune cells function. The most notable example of this is HIV, which infects CD4 + T cells, NKT cells, macrophages and DCs (Kruize and Kootstra, 2019; Harman et al., 2011). This phenomenon may be due …

According to, Cytotoxic T cells are the key component of the cell-mediated part of the adaptive immune system and attack and destroy infected cells. Cytotoxic cells are particularly important in protecting against viral infections; this is because viruses replicate within cells where they are shielded from extracellular contact with circulating antibodies.

According to, Induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. The initiation of the immune response to an invading microorganism like a virus requires that the host senses the organism and its constituents [e.g. uncapped viral RNA 5] and/or cellular stress and consequent metabolic changes and cellular damage resulting from infection.This initial response to infection is carried out primarily by germline …

According to, The Treg cell is a well-known population in the adaptive immune system that can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses by secreting cytokines (e.g. IL-10 and TGFβ) and/or by cell–cell contact 22, 23. Our recent study has reported that conventional T cells of the adaptive immune system could unexpectedly regulate innate response …

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